We all know that the foot is an amazing piece of anatomy and we probably all feel a bit chuffed once we’ve memorised the names of all the bones, know how they are held together, and understand the windlass mechanism and plantar fasciitis. But, other than their existence, what do we know about the intrinsic foot muscles (IFMs)? Well, it turns out that they are pretty crucial for proper functioning of the foot, and that strengthening them can help with many problems relating not only to the foot, but also the ankle and even the knee. This article allows you to understand the concept of the ‘foot core’, how to assess the IFMs and how to strengthen them. Login or register a free account below to access the contents, key points and discussion questions that accompany the article.
If missed or misdiagnosed, syndesmosis injuries are one of the most common causes of chronic ankle dysfunction and potential degenerative disease. Early and good diagnosis of the grade of injury (covered in Part 1)... Read More
If missed or misdiagnosed, syndesmosis injuries are one of the most common causes of chronic ankle dysfunction and potential degenerative disease This article guides you through how these injuries occur and how to best diagnose... Read More
This advice leaflet outlines how Achilles tendon pain can occur in cycling, the injury, management, rehabilitation and prevention. It has been written specifically for patients. You can purchase it individually using the Purchase button below,... Read More
This advice leaflet outlines how burning feet or 'hot foot' can occur in cycling, the injury, management, rehabilitation and prevention. It has been written specifically for patients. You can purchase it individually using the Purchase button below, or as part of any of the main Co-Kinetic subscriptions.
This advice leaflet outlines how ankle sprains can occur in football/soccer, what's going on inside, what can be done, and how physical therapy can help. It has been written specifically for patients. You can purchase it individually using the Purchase button below, or as part of any of the main Co-Kinetic subscriptions.
This leaflet explains to patients what an ankle sprain is, what structures are involved and what can be done to rehabilitate this injury. It is designed as a printable/downloadable A4 PDF. You can purchase it individually using the Purchase button below, or as part of any of the main Co-Kinetic subscriptions.
This article describes a quick and effective assessment process for heel pain that can be carried out in just 10 minutes. More than 10% of the population experiences heel pain and due to the number of structures in the foot and ankle a differential diagnosis can be difficult. This article covers mechanical and non-mechanical causes of heel pain, history taking, examination, investigations and management. It is accompanied by a Quick Reference PDF Booklet of more than 16 summary tables, flow charts and boxes which is available as a free download with a registered account.
This article outlines the latest incidence statistics for chronic plantar heel pain, explains how the structure and function of the plantar fascia is affected by pathology, outlines a detailed differential diagnosis and then delves into an evidence-based exploration of passive treatment options, exercise therapy and late stage rehabilitation. We have also created an accompanying Heel Pain Content Marketing Kit which contains all the material you need to build awareness about Heel Pain and the how physical therapy can speed up the recovery process. Both the article and marketing kit are included as part of a full site subscription or can be purchased individually for those without a full site subscription. For more information register or login below.
A two page A4 leaflet that's been written for patients. It gives information on what chronic plantar heel pain feels like, what the therapist can do and what the patient can do. You can purchase it individually using the Purchase button below, or it's included in all our subscriptions. It's also brandable using our Branding Upgrade. For more information visit https://www.co-kinetic.com/pricing.
This article is the seventh from our Manual Therapy Student Handbook (see the ‘Contents panel’ for further details) and it describes how to assess and treat common foot and ankle complaints. As well as listing a comprehensive assessment procedure, the treatments are described in full and have accompanying videos, which provides a great practical resource for the clinician.
This patient information leaflet covers exercises and advice for sinus tarsi injury. The leaflet includes an overview of the injury, along with specific strengthening and stretching exercises and repetition guidelines (which can be changed by practitioners where appropriate). Each exercise includes an image and description.
The double sided A4 (prints as a 4pp folded A5) full colour leaflet in PDF format is designed to be printed out and handed to your clients and can also be used on your website as part of a "call to action" document download (for more information read our article "Physical therapy website design: 10 homepage essentials for getting new clients"). You can purchase the leaflet individually, as part of the patient information section or as part of a full site subscription. To see a sample of the leaflet please click on the image icon in the media contents box.
Our Co-Kinetic patient advice leaflets are written and reviewed by a multi-disciplinary team of medical and fitness professionals. Every leaflet is peer-reviewed at the very minimum by a professional in each of the following disciplines: physical therapy, manual therapy and exercise/fitness. Where appropriate we may also ask a recognised national charity to review and approve the content.
This patient information leaflet covers exercises and advice for Achilles tendinosis. The leaflet includes an overview of the condition, along with specific strengthening and stretching exercises and repetition guidelines (which can be changed by practitioners where appropriate). Each exercise includes an image and description.
This article offers a ‘how to’ guide for diagnosing Achilles tendinopathy. We describe the differential diagnoses and look carefully at the history taking, examination methods and imaging techniques that are useful in diagnosing Achilles tendinopathy. The article is accompanied by a custom produced animation explaining the tendinopathy continuum, 7 professionally produced videos covering Achilles tendinopathy examination in standing and in lying, low dye taping, making temporary orthotics, eccentric loading and some case scenarios and a multiple choice quiz which results in the generation of a Pass certificate in the Quizzes area of your account on successful completion.
This article is an overview of a review by Malliaras et al. (1) looking at Achilles and patellar tendinopathy rehabilitation. There has been much research into the pathophysiology of tendinopathy and management of the condition has changed distinctly in the last 10 years. However, therapists are still using these old protocols (observed as little as 4 weeks ago) despite an incredible 45% of patients not responding significantly to eccentric exercise programmes. This article succinctly outlines the latest evidence base and rehab protocols and includes a video, animation and a continuing education multiple choice quiz.
In the October 2012 issue of sportEX medicine I reviewed the current evidence and theories relating to Achilles tendinopathy. While many theories are still in situ the one that appears to have gained the most traction, based on its pooling of current knowledge and clinical efficacy, is the tendinopathy continuum proposed by Cook and Purdam in 2009 (1). This article will look at the details of this paradigm using a specifically produced pathology animation and supportive images.
Spontaneous rupture of the plantar fascia is not commonly presented within physiotherapy or sports injury literature. The incidence within professional football players is even rarer. This is a case report of a professional footballer who had a rupture following a short bout of moderate plantar fasciitis. The actual rupture occurred early in a competitive league game but the player completed a full 90 minutes and only missed 11 days of training going against all existing literature on the condition being debilitative in the early stages. Rupture was diagnosed through pre- and post-injury MRI. This case discusses presentation, treatment of plantar fasciitis, MRI results, and treatment and rehabilitation of the spontaneous rupture. Differences between plantar fasciitis and plantar fascia rupture are also discussed in line with MRI findings.
This article examines the commonly used term “overpronation” and puts forward the case that it should be abandoned from the vocabulary of every sports injury professional who deals with lower limb pathology. Despite being one of the most frequently used terms associated with foot mechanics, the basis upon which it is used is nothing more than conventional habit, with next to no evidence supporting it as a medical concept. A review of the literature regarding foot level pronation is presented, and the historical assumptions of ‘normal’ (upon which most biomechanical evaluations and treatment plans are based) are challenged.
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